Gaseous exchange by gills or
across the body surface
Sexes are usually separate,
but some are hermaphrodite
Females may have brood
Mainly marine, but some
freshwater and a few terrestrial
Hugh size range from tiny water fleas just 0.25 mm long to crabs with a body width of 300 mm and a leg span of 3600 mm!
There are about 52,000 described
Crustaceans, but it is thought that many more await description. The body plan
varies considerably and in some the head and some thoracic segments have become
fused into a cephalothorax, and in others the carapace covers most of the body.
The cuticle is mainly composed of calcareous material, with some chitin and
protein, and this no doubt restricts their colonisation of water with a low pH.
There are many leg modifications, e.g. walking legs, paddles, food collection,
and claspers for mating. Although some are terrestrial, e.g. land crabs, all
except the woodlice must return to the water to breed.
In the smaller
aquatic crustaceans there is a tendency for gaseous exchange to take place over
the entire body.
They are separated into nine Classes (see the menu above). On this page is the Malocostraca; the largest class.
Humans eat more Crustacea than any other invertebrate Phylum. It is often the remains of these meals, the middens, that indicate past human habitation.
These are pigment containing cells, and can be quite large. However the pigment can be concentrated in a tiny area so small as to be invisible, or dispersed throughout the cell making it visible. The cells usually have irregularly shaped sides so that they fit together like a jig-saw making a number of colour combinations possible that allow them to
change colour rapidly, it is thought that colour change is one form of
This is the largest Crustacean
class with about 29,000 species described so far. There is great diversity of
body form. It includes all the Crustaceans consumed by humans, e.g.
crabs, (see the coconut crab above right and the edible crab on the right) shrimps and lobsters; as well
as the only truly terrestrial Order, the Isopoda (woodlice).
this Class have a fore gut where food is ground into particles. Most have
well-developed compound eyes.
In crabs and lobsters the cuticle is stiffened by calcification, i.e. the deposition of calcium carbonate.
Birgus latro, the robber crab or coconut crab
The coconut crab (above right) can be up to 1 m in length and is the largest land crab. Its claws are strong enough to open the husk and shell of coconuts so that it can feed off the flesh. And it is said that larger species can move rock up 25 kg in weight.
It is found in the tropical islands of the South Pacific. It was once common but is now rare as it is regarded as a delicacy. Adults moult annually, and juveniles more often. It is solitary, nocturnal, and it cannot swim.
The edible crab
The edible crab is commonly found in rock pools when the tide goes out. It is not a very good swimmer. Note that in the ventral view, the tail is curled under the body.
Macrocheira kaempferi, the giant spider crab, Japanese spider crab
On the right is Macrocheira kaempferi, the giant spider crab, Japanese spider crab. The leg span can reach four metres, but the body diameter is usually less than 40 cm. It can weigh as much as 20 kg, and is found in the Pacific Ocean around Japan, usually between 300 - 400 metres deep. It eats carrion and shellfish. Its life span is thought to be as much as 100 years. Eggs are laid in spring in water around 50 metres deep. The crab is a delicacy in Japan and is eaten both raw and cooked - it is delicious.
On the right is a male Gammarus sp. Common in freshwater, and often found in very high densities. They can reach up to 3 cm in length. They prefer running water, and live under stones.
left a shrimp, right a swimmeret and far right a walking leg; two different types of shrimp leg.
The shrimps, left have compound eyes on stalks. The first pair of legs are used in feeding and have pincers at the ends, the next 5 pairs of jointed legs used in walking above right), and have gills at their base. The rear legs are used in swimming and are called swimmerets (above); they are fringed with strong hairs or bristles.
Spearing mantis shrimp, Squilla mantis
The spearing mantis shrimp, Squilla mantis on the right, so-called because its front legs resemble those of a praying mantis. Is found in the warm temperate East Atlantic and Mediterranean coastal waters. It digs a burrow in the muddy or sandy sea bed. It sits at the entrance of its burrow and shoots out its legs to catch any passing victim - usually other crustaceans, then pulls it back into the burrow to be eaten. The average life span is three years.
Some mantis shrimps have fluorescent yellow marks which they use in threat displays when faced with a rival for a mate or a predator.