Rove beetles, Staphylinidae

Staphylinidae family, rove beetles overview

There are over 2000 species of Staphylinids in Europe, and almost 1000 species in Britain making this the largest beetle family in the U. K. They are commonly known as rove beetles. They range in size from less than 1 mm to around 30 mm long.

The elytra (wing cases) are always short, and this gives the adults a superficial resemblance to earwigs. They are also sometimes confused with beetles from the Silphidae family. However it is really quite easy to tell the two families apart. Silphids have just 3 or 4 exposed segments, and the wing cases are longer than these exposed segments; whereas the Staphs have 3 to 6 exposed segments, and the wing cases are always shorter than the exposed segments.The elytra cover intricately folded wings, and in most species flight is common. It is amusing to watch one just after it has landed, it will wriggle around while its wings are being folded up under the elytra, and only once they are correctly packed away will the beetle move off.

Most of the adults have conspicuous cerci at their rear end. These act just like antennae, and are highly sensitive and useful for a soil-dwelling insect.

Staphylinus olens (Ocypus olens), Devil's coach horse, cock-tail beetle

Staphylinus olens, devil's coach horse, cock-tail beetle

Above is an adult Staphylinus olens (Ocypus olens), commonly known as the Devil's coach horse or the cock-tail beetle. At up to 30 mm long it is the largest member of the Staphylindae family found in the U.K.

When alarmed it opens its large jaws and curls up its abdomen rather like a scorpion. Its jaws are strong enough to draw blood from humans. It is a matte black colour. Adults are common from May to September.

Ontholestes tessellatus

Ontholestes tessellatus

Above and below is the adult Ontholestes tessellatus. The adult length ranges from 13 - 20 mm. It is usually found in carrion and dung, but this one was found on the top of a soggy compost heap.

Ontholestes tessellatus

It is truly beautiful, covered in golden hair which has brassy reflections as it moves. Its eyes are huge and its jaws are fearsome. It runs very fast and is not easy to catch.

Below is the larva of Philonthus sp. showing the typical staphylinid larval body shape.

Philonthus sp. rove beetle larva, Staphylinid larva

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