Queens and females have stings, but males cannot sting
Adults feed on sweet liquids
Larvae feed on insects caught and cut up for them by the workers
Hornets are the rarest of the British social wasps, and easily recognised as they are yellow and brown in colour, and larger than the common German wasp
In Europe the hornets have a yellow head unlike the orange head of the British hornets
Social wasps overview
The social wasps are in the Vespidae family. there are 4000 species world wide, and seven species in Britain. Their life cycle is similar to Bumblebees, in that it is annual, with only the newly mated queens surviving the winter by hibernating (see below for recent changes in Hawaii and New Zealand). Wasp queens do not hibernate underground as bumblebees do, but usually choose a dry, cool, sheltered spot. Adults range in size from 10 - 30 mm long.
Head, thorax and abdomen with orange/brown instead of yellow/brown
Vespula germanica, German wasp
Q 17 - 20
W 12 - 16
M 13 - 17
Apr - Sep
3 small black spots between eyes
Vespula vulgaris, the common wasp
Q 16 - 19
W 11 - 15
M 13 - 17
Apr - Sep
Anchor-shaped mark between eyes (see queen below)
Vespula rufa, red wasp
Q 16 - 20
W 10 - 14
M 13 - 16
Apr - Sep
2 abdominal segments nearest abdomen have orange/red patches
Wasp food and eating habits
Wasp grubs (see the drawing on the right) are carnivorous, the adults bring them prey which is mainly other insects. This is chewed up into a paste by the workers and queen and fed to the grubs. As many of these prey items are regarded as "pests" by gardeners, it is clear that the wasp should be regarded as the gardener's friend.
Adult wasps prefer sweet foods such as nectar, jam, ice cream, and as the adults feed the grubs the grubs exude a sweet liquid which the adult wasps lap up. Towards the end of summer when the queen has
stopped laying eggs and all the grubs have hatched into adults, there is no more need for the adult wasps to bring back insect prey, and no grubs to give the adults the sweet substances they crave. So the adults go out and search for sweet substances.
They find sweet nectar in flowers, but as they have short tongues they cannot reach the nectaries of some flowers. It is at this time of year that wasps become a nuisance to man if they discover our sweet foods such as sugar, jam, ice cream, etc. In northern Europe wasps do not store food in their nests.
The larvae (see above right) are carnivorous eating chewed up bits of insects fed to them by adult wasps. In return the grubs exude a sweet secretion in their saliva which is lapped up by the adult wasps. This is why in early summer the wasp is the gardener's friend as it clears her plants of many pests.
The wasp queen
The Vespula vulgaris queen on the right and below is 16 - 19 mm long, (right and below right). The nest is started by the queen, and is about the size of a walnut. and contains 10 - 12 hexagonal cells. The queen then lays an egg in each cell. The cells point downwards, but the egg is partially stuck to the side, so it does not fall out. On average each cell is used twice.
On the right you can see a close up of a queen's head showing the 3 simple eyes or ocelli.
Adults are vegetarian eating any sugary liquid, but mainly sugary liquid exuded from the grubs and nectar from flowers. Vespula vulgaris workers (females) are 11 - 44 mm long, and the males are 13 - 17 mm long. In the U. K. the first adult workers emerge around the end of May.
The lifecycle is similar to that of bumblebees, and the queen will have mated the previous summer/autumn. It takes 3 - 4 weeks from the time the egg is laid to the hatching of the adult wasp.
On the right and below a queen of Vespula vulgaris. The photograph below shows the powerful jaws needed to scrape bits of wood off fences etc. then chew them into a pulp for nest construction.
How to tell the difference between Vespula vulgaris (the common wasp), and Vespula germanica (the German wasp)
If you look at the black mark on the face of the queen below you'll see that it is long and curved up at the ends rather like an anchor - this is typical of common wasps. The German wasp has 3 black spots instead of this black anchor.
Vespula vulgaris body lengths are queen 16 - 19 mm, workers 12 - 15 mm, and males 16 - 17 mm.
On the right you can see the hind leg of a social wasp. Note that it has no pollen basket as would be found in bumblebees and honeybees, as pollen is not an important item in the diet of either adults or grubs.
Vespula germanica in Hawaii and New Zealand
Vespula germanica has been introduced to Hawaii and New Zealand, and in these areas the normal yearly life cycle of this wasp has changed.
In some nests after the founding queen has dies a new queen takes over and is accepted by the workers - she may be their sister. this can make the colonies perennial, as the weather is so mild.
In such cases the colony can increase to a huge size, and become a serious and dangerous pest.
Hibernating queen wasp
On the right you can see a hibernating queen wasp. Note that her wings are folded and held under her legs, probably to protect them.
She is attached to the underside of a log in a log store. The logs were stored outside, and the temperature over the winter months went below minus 17C!
Wasp flight speed
Wasp flight speed has been recorded as 2.5 metres per second, and 250 wing beats per second. Compare this with other insects. They are expert fliers and can fly up, down, forwards and backwards.