Protura body shape
Protura (see drawing of a typical one on the left) are minute, ranging in size from 1.0 - 1.5 mm long, colorless and eyeless. They do not have antennae or any terminal filaments. They have a cone-shaped head. They are the only insects that have no antennae and hold their first pair of legs in front of their head using them like antennae.
There are about 750 species worldwide, 175 European, and 15 British species. They are most easily found in summer.
Protura natural history and life cycle
Protura are found in damp soil, moss and leaf litter where they feed on decayed organic matter. In the U. K. species fungal mycelium seems to be the main food.
Male protura do not produce spermatophores, so it is believed that sperm transfer is direct. This lack of knowledge highlights how little we know of these insects.
When the larvae first hatch from the egg they have just 9 abdominal segments; this increases to the 12 of an adult with each moult.
It is thought that the Protura may be descended from the Diplura.
This is the latest book from bumblebee.org
Smith, L. (2014). Characteristics of the insect orders. Amazon. Characteristics of the insect orders with drawings and photographs to help you understand the differences between the different types of insect, and identify which order an insect is in, as well as fast facts about each insect order, and links to web pages with more detailed information.
Many orders have separate sections about the life cycle of the insect as well as its habitat requirements, and fossil history.